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Public finance is the study of the role of the government in the economy. It is the branch of economics that assesses the government revenue and government expenditure of the public authorities and the adjustment of one or the other to achieve desirable effects and avoid undesirable ones. The purview of public finance is considered to be threefold, consisting of governmental effects on:
==Overview==One of the more traditional subfields of economics, public finance emphasizes the function and role of government in the economy. A region's inhabitants established a formal or informal entity known as the government to carry out a variety of tasks, including providing for social requirements like education and healthcare as well as protecting the populace's private property from outside threats.
The proper role of government provides a starting point for the analysis of public finance. In theory, under certain circumstances, private markets will allocate goods and services among individuals efficiently (in the sense that no waste occurs and that individual tastes are matching with the economy's productive abilities). If private markets were able to provide efficient outcomes and if the distribution of income were socially acceptable, then there would be little or no scope for government. In many cases, however, conditions for private market efficiency are violated. For example, if many people can enjoy the same good (the moment that good was produced and sold, it starts to give its utility to every one for free) at the same time (non-rival, non-excludable consumption), then private markets may supply too little of that good. National defense is one example of non-rival consumption, or of a public good.
Government can pay for spending by borrowing (for example, with government bonds), although borrowing is a method of distributing tax burdens through time rather than a replacement for taxes. A deficit is the difference between government spending and revenues. The accumulation of deficits over time is the total public debt. Deficit finance allows governments to smooth tax burdens over time and gives governments an important fiscal policy tool. Deficits can also narrow the options of successor governments. There is also a difference between public and private finance, in public finance the source of income is indirect, e.g., various taxes (specific taxes, value added taxes), but in private finance sources of income is direct.
Taxation is the central part of modern public finance. Its significance arises not only from the fact that it is by far the most important of all revenues but also because of the gravity of the problems created by the present day tax burden. The main objective of taxation is raising revenue. A high level of taxation is necessary in a welfare State to fulfill its obligations. Taxation is used as an instrument of attaining certain social objectives, i.e., as a means of redistribution of wealth and thereby reducing inequalities. Taxation in a modern government is thus needed not merely to raise the revenue required to meet its expenditure on administration and social services, but also to reduce the inequalities of income and wealth. Taxation might also be needed to draw away money that would otherwise go into consumption and cause inflation to rise.
Macroeconomic data to support public finance economics are generally referred to as fiscal or government finance statistics (GFS). The Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001) is the internationally accepted methodology for compiling fiscal data. It is consistent with regionally accepted methodologies such as the European System of Accounts 1995 and consistent with the methodology of the System of National Accounts (SNA1993) and broadly in line with its most recent update, the SNA2008.
The GFSM 2001 addresses the institutional complexity of government by defining various levels of government. The main focus of the GFSM 2001 is the general government sector defined as the group of entities capable of implementing public policy through the provision of primarily non market goods and services and the redistribution of income and wealth, with both activities supported mainly by compulsory levies on other sectors. The GFSM 2001 disaggregates the general government into subsectors: central government, state government, and local government (See Figure 1). The concept of general government does not include public corporations. The general government plus the public corporations comprise the public sector (See Figure 2).
The GFSM 2001 recommends standard tables including standard fiscal indicators that meet a broad group of users including policy makers, researchers, and investors in sovereign debt.Government finance statistics should offer data for topics such as the fiscal architecture, the measurement of the efficiency and effectiveness of government expenditures, the economics of taxation, and the structure of public financing. The GFSM 2001 provides a blueprint for the compilation, recording, and presentation of revenues, expenditures, stocks of assets, and stocks of liabilities. The GFSM 2001 also defines some indicators of effectiveness in government's expenditures, for example the compensation of employees as a percentage of expense. The GFSM 2001 includes a functional classification of expense as defined by the Classification of Functions of Government (COFOG) .
The dynamic public policy environment of the past few years required a thorough updating of most aspects of the book. All statistics, data-related tables and figures, and applications have been updated completely to reflect the most recent available data.In addition, a number of major changes were made throughout, including new examples, updating of existing chapter introductions, revisions to the Application and Empirical Evidence boxed features, and a number of new and thoroughly updated text discussions.
The signal event since the last edition of this textbook was the COVID-19 crisis and government reactions to it. This edition has been extensively revised to reflect this new reality, as well as to incorporate a number of other updates to both public policy and our understanding of the economic and human consequences of such policies. Revisions include:Chapter 1 has a new introduction tied to COVID-19, highlighting the array of decisions that the government had to make and the controversies they engendered. Section 1.3 was also edited to highlight how the policy issues arising from COVID-19 are front and center to public finance debates
Public finance and public policy, 5th edition by Jonathan Gruber, PDF, was published in 2016 and uploaded for 300-level Administration, Social and Management science students of Edo University (EUI), offering ECO313 course. This ebook can be downloaded for FREE online on this page. Public finance and public policy, 5th edition ebook can be used to learn public finance, public policy, budget analysis, deficit financing, externalities, public goods, cost-benefit analysis, political economy, state expenditures, local government expenditures, education, social insurance, social security, unemployment, insurance, disability insurance, worker's compensation, health insurance, health economics, private health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, health care reform, taxation.
Topics : Public Finance, welfare economics, market failure, public goods, public choice, externalities, political economy, direct democracy, representative democracy, education, public pending, cost-benefit analysis, present value, benefit-cost ration, private sector project evaluation, social discount rate, public expenditure, social insurance, income maintenance, health care market, health insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, health care reform, social security, income redistribution, distribution of income, expenditure incidence, income maintenance, work incentives, earned income tax credit, supplemental security income, unemployment insurance, food stamps, child nutrition, housing assistance, taxation, income distribution, Partial Equilibrium Models, Optimal Commodity Taxation, Optimal Income Taxation, United states revenue system, personal income tax, income, personal taxation, labor supply, saving, Portfolio Composition, corporation tax, State Corporation Taxes, Corporation Tax Reform, deficit finance, Retail Sales Tax, Value-Added Tax, Hall-Rabushka Flat Tax, wealth taxes, multigovernment public finance, property tax, Intergovernmental Grants
Topics : Public Finance, markets, governments, externalities, government policy, public goods, public choice, cost-benefit analysis, government investments, government subsidies, social security, social insurance, financing government expenditures, government finance, taxation, prices, efficiency, distribution of income, budget balance, government debt, taxation, income taxation, corporate income, consumption tax, sales tax, wealth tax, property tax
Topics : Public Policy Analysis, policy science, public policy, social science, state, policy processes, policy cycle, policy formulation, implementing public policy, policy politics, advocacy, expertise, policy communities, policy decision making, rationality, deliberative policy analysis, argumentation, Comparative Public Policy, Applied Cultural Theory, Democratic Citizenship, Quantitatively Oriented Policy Methods, social experiments, policy evaluation, evaluation research, Qualitative Policy Analysis, Policy Decisions Techniques, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Environmental Impact Assessment, Public Policy Mediation, Korean Policy Analysis
Topics : public sector, allocation function, public choice, social goods, fiscal politics, Leviathan Hypothesis, Representative Democracy, expenditure structure, expenditure policy, public expenditure, expenditure evaluation, taxation, tax equity, tax design, taxation effects, tax structure, individual income tax, Corporation Income Tax, Con